Nanofiltration is often used to recycle wastewater, as it offers higher flux rates and uses less energy than a reverse osmosis system. The design and operation of nanofiltration is similar to the reverse osmosis, with some differences, the major difference is that the nano membrane is not as "tight" as the reverse osmosis membrane. Because of its ability to effectively remove di and trivalent ions, nanofiltration is frequently used to remove hardness from water while leaving the total dissolved solids content much less affected. For this reason, it has been called the "softening membrane".
Because it is a "looser membrane", nanofiltration membranes are less likely to foul or scale and require less pretreatment than RO membranes. It is possible to use them as pretreatment for reverse osmosis systems. Fields of application: Water treatment, Manufacturing process of pharmaceuticals, dairy products, textiles and bakeries